Supine blood pressure levels (BP) is measured on the proper arm having fun with a hands-on mercury sphygmomanometer, once a great 10-minute sleeping period. The first and 5th Korotkoff phase were used so you can determine systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP), respectively. The new imply off three measurements try thought to be the BP worth. PP is actually defined as the difference between SBP and you will DBP. Hips circumference (WC) are counted using an inelastic recording set midway involving the straight down ribs and you will iliac crests on the middle-axillary line. Practical biological details (enzymatic strategy, automat HITACHI 917 (Roche, Meylan, France); colorimetric opportinity for albumin amount and you will hematology: ABX, Pentra 120, Meylan, France) was mentioned around accelerated requirements; high-occurrence lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) try counted because of the head enzymatic assay with cyclodextrin (Roche Diagnostics, Basel, Switzerland). A sleep electrocardiogram was filed. Breathing mode try examined of the spirometry by measuring pushed expiratory regularity (FEV1). Tobacco cigarette practices (never cigarette smoker, ex-smoker and you will latest tobacco user), exercise (typical physical exercise: sure or no), individual health background, newest drugs and you may alcoholic beverages, social status and you may work-related activity have been assessed playing with a personal-administered questionnaire. Stress and you may depression ratings had been examined from the confirmed surveys (Beck mais aussi al., 1974; Cohen ainsi que al., 1983); Subjected Health Position (SHS) ratings was basically collected which have a home-estimate with the a level anywhere between 0 and ten. Alcoholic drinks intake try quantified once the amount of standardized cups of alcohol (ten grams for each cup) ate on a daily basis. Each type out-of alcohol (such as for instance cider and you will alcohol, wines, appetizer) try submitted. Full alcoholic drinks consumption are calculated because the amount of all types of alcohol consumed and also the associated number (because g from alcohol) is projected. All systematic and you may biological details was examined on the same date of your own test.
The new IPC Center received consent in the Federal Committee of data and Civil Independence to help you make these types of analyses. All of the victims provided the informed agree during the time of the test.
Alcoholic beverages are divided in to four categories : (1) zero alcoholic beverages, (2) reasonable alcohol consumption (less than one cup each day), (3) average alcohol consumption (ranging from one and you can three cups a-day), (4) large alcohol based drinks (more than about three cups) and you can (5) sufferers which in the past ate alcoholic drinks however, which don’t performed (former drinkers). Because of the heterogeneity throughout the set of previous drinkers (day elapsed just like the cessation off alcohol consumption, cause for which cessation, an such like.), investigation inside classification was in fact examined independently.
For quantitative variables, the four first groups were compared by multivariate model analysis, which included age to take into account the difference in age observed between the different groups; respiratory function (FEV1) was compared across the groups before and after further adjustment for tobacco status. For qualitative variables, comparisons were made using the ? 2 test. As one may hypothesize that the relationships between alcohol and health and social status are not identical in males and females, we analyzed these relationships on the basis of stratification by gender. All parameters associated with alcohol consumption in univariate analysis were included in a multivariate model. Forward regression analysis was carried out and all variables remaining in the model were significant with P<0.05. All statistical analyses were performed using the SAS statistical software (version 8.02; SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA).
Data collected from a total of 149 773 subjects (97 406 men and 52 367 women) were analyzed. The average ages of men and women were 47.6±15 and 47.0±12 years, respectively. In this population, 13.7% of men and 23.9% of women were abstinent (4.5% former drinkers and 9.2% never drinkers in men; 20.1% never drinkers and 3.1% former drinkers in women). Total alcohol intake increased with age both in men and in women. With the exception of the subgroup of young subjects (<30 years of age), alcoholic beverages mainly consisted of wine. In addition, wine consumption increased with age, whereas those of beer and appetizers decreased (P<0.0001).